Bytedeco makes native libraries available to the Java platform by offering ready-to-use bindings generated with the codeveloped JavaCPP technology. This, we hope, is the missing bridge between Java and C/C++.
- JavaCPP [API] – A tool that can not only generate JNI code but also build native wrapper library files from an appropriate interface file written entirely in Java. It can also parse automatically C/C++ header files to produce the required Java interface files.
Prebuilt Java Bindings to C/C++ LibrariesThese are part of a project that we call the JavaCPP Presets. Many coexist in the same GitHub repository, and all use JavaCPP to wrap predefined C/C++ libraries from open-source land. The bindings expose almost all of the relevant APIs and make them available in a portable and user-friendly fashion to any Java virtual machine (including Android), as if they were like any other normal Java libraries. We have presets for the following C/C++ libraries:
- OpenCV – [sample usage] [API] – More than 2500 optimized computer vision and machine learning algorithms
- FFmpeg – [sample usage] [API] – A complete, cross-platform solution to record, convert and stream audio and video
- FlyCapture – [sample usage] [API] – Image acquisition and camera control software
- libdc1394 – [sample usage] [API] – A high-level API for DCAM/IIDC cameras
- OpenKinect – [sample usage] [API] [API 2] – Open source library to use the Xbox Kinect
- librealsense – [sample usage] [API] – Cross-platform camera capture for Intel RealSense F200, SR300 and R200
- videoInput – [sample usage] [API] – A free Windows video capture library
- ARToolKitPlus – [sample usage] [API] – Marker-based augmented reality tracking library
- Chilitags – [sample usage] [API] – Robust fiducial markers for augmented reality and robotics
- flandmark – [sample usage] [API] – Open-source implementation of facial landmark detector
- HDF5 – [sample usage] [API] – Makes possible the management of extremely large and complex data collections
- MKL – [sample usage] [API] – The fastest and most-used math library for Intel-based systems
- OpenBLAS – [sample usage] [API] – An optimized BLAS library based on GotoBLAS2 1.13 BSD version, plus LAPACK
- ARPACK-NG – [sample usage] [API] – Collection of subroutines designed to solve large scale eigenvalue problems
- CMINPACK – [sample usage] [API] – For solving nonlinear equations and nonlinear least squares problems
- FFTW – [sample usage] [API] – Fast computing of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) in one or more dimensions
- GSL – [sample usage] [API] – The GNU Scientific Library, a numerical library for C and C++ programmers
- LLVM – [sample usage] [API] – A collection of modular and reusable compiler and toolchain technologies
- libpostal – [sample usage] [API] – For parsing/normalizing street addresses around the world
- Leptonica – [sample usage] [API] – Software useful for image processing and image analysis applications
- Tesseract – [sample usage] [API] – Probably the most accurate open source OCR engine available
- Caffe – [sample usage] [API] – A fast open framework for deep learning
- CUDA – [sample usage] [API] – Arguably the most popular parallel computing platform for GPUs
- MXNet – [sample usage] [API] – Flexible and efficient library for deep learning
- TensorFlow – [sample usage] [API] – Computation using data flow graphs for scalable machine learning
- ALE – [sample usage] [API] – The Arcade Learning Environment to develop AI agents for Atari 2600 games
- LiquidFun – [sample usage] [API] – 2D physics engine for games
- Skia – [sample usage] [API] – A complete 2D graphic library for drawing text, geometries, and images
- Systems – [sample usage] [API] – To call native functions of operating systems (glibc, XNU libc, Win32, etc)
- Add here your favorite C/C++ library, for example: Caffe2, OpenNI, OpenMesh, PCL, etc. Read about how to do that.
We will add more to this list as they are made, including those from outside the bytedeco/javacpp-presets repository.
Projects Leveraging the Presets Bindings
- JavaCV [API] – Library based on the JavaCPP Presets that depends on commonly used native libraries in the field of computer vision to facilitate the development of those applications on the Java platform. It provides easy-to-use interfaces to grab frames from cameras and audio/video streams, process them, and record them back on disk or send them over the network.
- JavaCV Examples – Collection of examples originally written in C++ for the book entitled OpenCV 2 Computer Vision Application Programming Cookbook by Robert Laganière, but ported to JavaCV and written in Scala.
- ProCamCalib – Sample JavaCV application that can perform geometric and photometric calibration of a set of video projectors and color cameras.
- ProCamTracker – Another sample JavaCV application that uses the calibration from ProCamCalib to implement a vision method that tracks a textured planar surface and realizes markerless interactive augmented reality with projection mapping.
More Project Information
See the developer site on GitHub for more general information about the Bytedeco projects.
Over the past few months, I have been busy integrating JavaCPP to Deeplearning4j, mainly as part of ND4J and DataVec. Many bugs had to be fixed, we also needed to enhance native memory management, a few presets were created, but I actually spent most of my time trying to run Skymind in Japan. In any case, thanks to all the team, Deeplearning4j has come a long way since last year, so if you have not given it a try recently, make sure you do!
However, a release at Bytedeco was long overdue, so I am proud to announce the availability of version 1.3! The source code and the binaries can be obtained as usual from GitHub and the Maven Central Repository for JavaCPP, JavaCPP Presets, JavaCV, ProCamCalib, and ProCamTracker. This release comes with binaries for
linux-armhf (for devices such as Raspberry Pi), thanks to Vince Baines for his continuous effort, as well as
linux-ppc64le, built on SuperVessel Cloud, which features virtual machines that IBM offers for free to the community. Lloyd Chan has also been maintaining sbt-javacpp and sbt-javacv, while Andreas Eberle has generously provided Android builds for TensorFlow.
To manage native memory more automatically, JavaCPP now monitors physical memory usage, also known as “resident set size” on Linux, Mac OS X, etc or “working set size” on Windows, as reported by the kernel. The maximum value defaults to 2 times
Runtime.maxMemory(), which can be specified with the usual
-Xmx option on the command line, but we can also set it independently via the “org.bytedeco.javacpp.maxphysicalbytes” system property. When the whole process uses more physical memory than that amount,
System.gc() followed by
Thread.sleep(100) are called a few times in a row, an amount adjustable via the “org.bytedeco.javacpp.maxretries” system property, in an attempt to free memory. With this strategy, we are able to tame memory usage more accurately no matter how it is being allocated.
The presets that were created for this release are librealsense (a great contribution from Jeremy Laviole), HDF5 (that Deeplearning4j uses to import models from Keras, Theano, and TensorFlow), and OpenBLAS (which also dynamically binds to MKL if found on the system or in the class path). Additions planned for the near future include MAGMA to supplement functionality missing from cuSOLVER. To simplify further the user experience, we also plan to offer bundles containing all the binaries for CUDA and MKL, if it is determined that we are allowed to do so, which appears likely according to the EULAs that accompany their free downloads (CUDA and MKL). Traditionally, we have to spend time either installing them manually or figuring out a way to automate the process on a case-by-case basis, using when possible platform-specific package managers or containers such as Docker, probably along with some scripts. Having such bundles available on the Maven Central Repository would relieve developers and operators from this burden.
Other important changes include a
HalfIndexer to process in Java 16-bit half-precision floating-point data from CUDA or other libraries, the adoption of a user defined directory (defaults to
~/.javacpp/cache/) where JavaCPP now caches native library files, instead of extracting them into a temporary directory, and the introduction of “platform artifacts” for the JavaCPP Presets and JavaCV. Each entry in the cache is a directory with the same name as the JAR file from which the files are extracted, including the subdirectories, for example,
opencv-3.1.0-1.3-linux-x86_64.jar/org/bytedeco/javacpp/linux-x86_64/libopencv_core.so.3.1. This way, the files are given a (most of the time) unique, predetermined, but easy to remember path, preventing not only the build up of messy temporary files, but also allowing for faster startup times as well as easier integration with native tools, outside the scope of JavaCPP. The technique also works for files other than libraries. Right now, the implementation does not support the extraction of whole directories, but when that becomes possible, one will be able to bundle header files, among other native resources, and have them available for immediate consumption with such a simple call as
Loader.cacheResource(opencv_core.class, "include"). As a matter of course, the cache functions just as smoothly with uber JARs. “Platform artifacts” can also come in handy. Users are invited to add dependencies on those artifacts suffixed with “-platform”, for example,
ffmpeg-platform, etc, which in turn depend on binaries for all supported platforms. This new strategy was designed to work well with build systems other than Maven (sbt, Gradle, M2Eclipse, etc).
On a final note, before long, we hope to have build servers running allowing us to make releases available in a more timely fashion. Stay tuned for updates, but in the meantime, do not hesitate to contact us through the mailing list from Google Groups, issues on GitHub, or the chat room at Gitter, for any questions that you may have. Contributions are also very welcome!